In order for anyone to make ethical judgments, he must know the consequences of his various actions. In questions of union actions displacement or unemployment for oneself or others will be considered unfortunate by most people.
The time market determines the pure rate of interest. Price per unit of time may be wages or rent. The interest income will be earned by the capitalist who has assumed the task of advancing present money.
Economists can say little about population and its size, despite the gloomy views of Malthus. More people are a good thing because of the division of labor. Living standards are higher when populations are higher.
Economics begins with the concepts of scarcity and choice. If there was no scarcity it would all be free. Resources like time and materials need to be allocated to economically feasible uses. This will depend on the consumers' demand for the final product.
The objective of the corporate firm is to maximize profits and avoid losses - the same objective of the free market. But the costs are paid out before the income comes in. Stockholders will sell stock to shake up the managers.
The words monopoly and competition have been changed. Competition meant rivalry or competing, either active or potential. Businesses do not like this. Monopoly meant a grant of privilege by the government. It now means falling demand curve.